Faculty Staff

Shanmugaratnam Kanagaratnam

Emeritus Professor
Professorial Fellow,
Emeritus Consultant Department of Pathology

Tel: +65 6772 4312
CV: Shanmugaratnam K

Clinical Interest / Subspecialty

Cancer Epidemiology
Tumour Nomenclature and Coding


1947 – LMS (College of Medicine, Singapore)
1954 – MD (University of Malaya)
1957 – PhD (University of London)
1963 – FRCPA (Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia)
1963 – FRCPath (Royal College of Pathology, UK)
1970 – FCAP (College of American Pathologists)

Professional / Clinical experience

Professorial Fellow (NUS) and Emeritus Consultant (NUH) 1986-present
Professor of Pathology, National University of Singapore 1960-1968
Pathologist, Ministry of Health Singapore 1948-1960
Pathology of the Head and Neck
Cancer Epidemiology
Tumour Nomenclature and Coding
1. Shanmugaratnam K. Primary carcinoma of the liver and biliary tract. Brit J Cancer 1956;10:232-246
2. "Dragons in the nose": An investigation of tissues removed from the nose by unqualified persons in Singapore. Singapore Med J 1962;3:16-19
3. Svoboda DJ, Kirchner FR, Shanmugaratnam K. Ultrastructure of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in American and Chinese patients. Exp Mol Pathol 1965;4:189-204
4. Muir CS, Shanmugaratnam K (eds). Cancer of the Nasopharynx. UICC Monograpg 1, Copenhagen, Munksgaard 1967
5. Shanmugaratnam K. Cancer in Singapore: Ethnic and dialect group variations in cancer incidence. Singapore Med J 1973;14:69-81
6. Shanmugaratnam K, Chan SH, de-The G, Gog JEH, Khor TH, Simons MJ, Tye CY. Histopathology of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Correlations with epidemiology, survival rates and other biological characteristics. Cancer 1979;44:1029-1044
7. Shanmugaratnam K, Lee HP, Day NE. Cancer in Singapore 1968-1977. IARC Scientific Publications 47. Lyon:IARC 1983
8. Shanmugaratnam K, Kunaratnam N, Chia KB, Chiang GS, Sinniah R. Teratoid carcinosarcoma of the paranasal sinuses. Pathology 1983;15:413-419
9. Shanmugaratnam K (Ed). Histological Typing of Tumours of the Upper Respiratory Tract and Ear. WHO International Classification of Tmoursa, 2nd Edition Springer-Verlag 1991
10. Seow ALH, Koh WP, Chia KS, Shi LM,Lee HP, Shanmugaratnam K. Trends in Cancer Incidence in Singapore 1968-2002. Singapore Cancer Registry 2004